Do dive headfirst into the game if you want! Each card describes a historical event or era, which you should try to date as precisely as possible by clicking on the timeline below it. If you'd like a head start, you may spend a few minutes on the crash course below.
• Mesopotamia - the area between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.
• Egypt - the area surrounding the Nile River.
• The Levant - the area surrounding the Jordan River.
Sargon of Akkad conquered and united Sumerian and Akkadian speaking areas. He thus created the world’s first EMPIRE (i.e. one rule over several cultures). It didn’t last long but the Akkadian language replaced Sumerian and became the spoken language for all succeeding city-states of Mesopotamia - from Babylon in the south to Assur in the north
Babylon would be the center of the next major empire. The Old Babylonian Empire is famous for the written laws of King Hammurabi and for its advanced mathematics. In 1595 BC, it fell to invaders from the mountains north and east of Mesopotamia.
Assur would later (see below) become the center of the brutal Neo-Assyrian Empire.
The costly pyramids and pharaoh cult combined with a period of draught made the pharaoh unable to support his people. Civil wars ensued and local rulers arose.
At the end of this period, people from Asia invaded and settled in the Nile delta. The Egyptians retreated south to the city of Thebes.
At the end of the millennium (c. 1200–1100 BC) there was a big and mysterious upheaval. Egypt declined and new powers arose. This corresponds to the transition between ‘Bronze Age’ and ‘Iron Age’.
The Hebrews also took advantage of Egypt's decline. They founded the Kingdom of Israel, which was later split into two halves. The northern part was destroyed 722 BC by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The southern part survived until 587 BC when it was conquered by a Neo-Babylonian Empire.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire was soon conquered by the Persian king Cyrus, who created an enormous empire from a base in the south of today’s Iran. The Persians allowed subordinate people to practice their native customs and religions. Still, they experienced revolts and were involved in a long war against Greece. The empire finally fell to Alexander the Great in 331 BC.